A visa is an indication that a person is authorized to enter the country which "issued" the visa, subject to permission of an immigration official at the time of actual entry.
The visa fees charged are at the discretion of each embassy.
Some Types of visa:
transit visa, tourist visa, business visa, temporary worker visa, on-arrival visa, student visa.
Visas can also be single-entry which means the visa is canceled as soon as the holder leaves the country; double-entry, or multiple-entry which permits double or multiple entries into the country with the same visa.
Many countries have a mechanism to allow the holder of a visa to apply to extend a visa. For example, in Denmark a visa holder can apply to the Danish Immigration Service for a Residence Permit after they have arrived in the country. In the United Kingdom applications can be made to the UK Border Agency.
Common visas:- the Schengen Visa may be the best-known example of a common visa. This visa has it origins in the 1985 Schengen Agreement among European states which allows for a common policy on the temporary entry of persons (including visas). The visa allows a tourist or visitor access to the area covered by the agreement (known as the “Schengen Area” or “Schengenland”).
Exit visas :- Some countries have a requirement that an individual obtain an exit visa (ie. permit) to leave the country. This happens mostly in countries where there is political, economic or social turmoil that results in an increased rise in emigration. Sometimes this requirement also applies to foreign nationals.
Saudi Arabia and Qatar have an exit visa requirement, particularly for foreign workers.
A visa may be denied for a number of reasons, some of which being that the applicant:-
• Has committed fraud or misrepresentation in his or her application.
• Has a criminal record or has criminal charges pending.
• Is considered to be a security risk.
• Cannot prove to have strong ties to their current country of residence.
• Intends to reside or work permanently in the country she/he will visit if not applying for an immigrant or work visa respectively.
• Does not have a legitimate reason for the journey.
• Does not have travel arrangements (i.e. transport and lodging) in the destination country.
• Does not have a health/travel insurance valid for the destination and the duration of stay.
• Is applying on excessively short notice.
• Had their previous visa application(s) rejected and cannot prove that the reasons for the previous denials no longer exist or are not applicable anymore.
• Is a citizen of a country with whom the host country has poor or non-existent relations.
• Has a communicable disease, such as tuberculosis.
• Has previous visa/immigration violations.
• Has a passport that expires too soon.
• Fails to demonstrate intent to return (for non-immigrants).
• Is not financially strong, has poor Bank account.